Monday, April 23, 2018

The Pedal Lexicon: Foot and Shoe Metaphors

As early hominids took to bipedal walking two million years before they developed the brain we now accept as our own, it gave them plenty time to think on their feet. A residual aspect of our primitive existence is the inclusion of reference to the foot and shoes into our common language. So the spectrum of life is subconsciously caught from the ‘patter of tiny feet’, heralding the beginning of life to the inevitable, ‘popping your clogs’ and ending up in ‘Boothill’, into our lexicon. All language contains more metaphoric reference to the lower limb than any other part of the human body, including the naughty, wobbly bits.

The foot still fascinates the bipedal primate, no matter how sophisticated and superior the species becomes, we need to concede the sage words of Bernard Breslaw “You need feet”. Life is to do with getting from A to B and from beginning to the end that depends on feet. Let’s start at the very beginning when we ‘take out first step’, sure footedness is something we learn and getting there can cause our parents some concerns but once we have our foot on the first rung of life’s ladder there is no stopping us.

Of course there are rules and we need to be good foot soldiers. The quicker we learn to control the Id (ego), then the more likely we become productive members of the tribe. To integrate we need to do the leg work and must be mindful not to lose our footing on the way. Trying to keep our foot out of our mouths can be a challenge at times, especially when young and impetuous, but through length of days and treading the hard road, comes understanding and the ability to listen more than talk. No one can do more harm to ourselves in life than, ourselves especially when we put our foot in it and trip over our own feet.

Pick your steps wisely, is good advice. Some succeed by standing on others’ toes, but a good footnote is to remember the people you step on, on the way up the ladder, will be waiting to trip you up when you inevitably come tumbling back down. A good idea is to foot the bill and take the responsibility for your own mistakes.

In life’s journey when you recognise others are taking advantage of your good nature you need to learn to say no, and put your foot down. Laying our troubles at the feet of others is the tactic of a heel. The primary function of the species is to leave our footprints in the sands of time.

Hence the circle of life continues as our offspring follow in our footsteps. But let us not forget the pathway of life may not always be rosy and trouble free and hence the need to get footloose once in a while.

Sunday, April 22, 2018

Power dressing : Get to the point !

The fashion point in women’s shoes has become an evergreen in the 21st century. This has not come entirely without controversy. The foot/shoe police were quick to vocalise their condemnation with forecasts of foot doom and deformity to all who dare wear them. Problem is there is no actual independent evidence to support these claims. Certainly discomfort may result when anyone wears tighter clothing that is comfortable. Hazards also do await the foot challenged who squeeze their feet into a triangular shaped shoes smaller than their feet, but as a shoe design, pointed shoes does not present real harm to the feet. The one condition is of course both feet and shoes need to be physically compatible and worn the footwear worn for short periods then no real harm can come to the wearer.

So why do pointed shoes come in for such criticism?

As a retired podologist I studied the foot in both health as well as disease and became fascinated with the psycho-social aspects of shoe design. There are only seven basic shoe types and fashion is made from the innumerable combinations of these styles. The origins of pointed shoes are quite simple to locate and were worn in biblical times. Historians believe the style then had more to do with poor shoemaking than style per se but people who wore peaked sandals were considered ‘free spirited’.

In the 11th century, Fulk le Réchin, (you have to watch how you say that especially with cheap dental adhesive) was a courtier in Anjou, France. By all accounts, he was a bad tempered, quarrelsome fellow and according to Rossi, suffered painful bunions and ingrown toenails. He commissioned his cordwainer to craft him a designer pair of shoes to accommodate these deformities. The clever shoemaker came up with poulaines – triangular shoes with long extension beyond the toes. The belle figure was nicknamed ‘Cornadus’ or horned one, as he strutted about the court. Now whether this is fact or fiction, no one knows but something very strange did happened in the 11th century. Across Europe, the length of men’s shoes got longer and longer until they were 24 inches longer than the foot. Despite Papal bulls (public decrees) to prevent lower classes from wearing poulaines, the fashion continued unabated for another four hundred years. No clear explanation has ever been proffered to explain this strange phenomenon.

The fashion for long toed shoes became an obsession for men in the Middle Ages and lasted 400 years. For just under half a millennium, the size of men's shoes got longer and longer until they were 24 inches longer than the foot. Poulaines or beaks were thought to be used as sex toys in courtly love and have been associated with promiscuity ever since.

As a style it did not reappear until 1960s with the sexual revolution. Winkle pickers along with the stiletto heels were loved by the youth of the day and met a tirade of warnings and foreboding from the (medical) establishment. Today there is no medical evidence to show the Bulge (sixties generation) have more deformed feet because of their fleeting association with pointed shoes than any other demographic.

So why the fuss?

In the past men wore pointed shoes with the brief exception of the sixties during the sexual revolution now in the 21 st Century it is women who wear the pointed shoes. In the spirit of zeitgeist condemnation of shoes has become a male preserve once again, and is a metaphor for both a moral backlash against promiscuity; as well as fear of women entering the work force. Pointed shoe styles and high heels have become stereotypically associated with Jezebels and power dressing in the work place. To many misogynists sartorial pornography is a real challenge now power dressing for women is here to stay.

Reviewed 22/04/2016

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Looting Chic and Chavs

Something had to replace the ugg in the fashion world of the high fashionista. Australian Uggs definitely established boots 21st century style across the globe and like thongs, were effortlessly removed so the fast set traveller could skip swiftly through security checks and still express the beauty of their feet and leg equally as well. Uggs will remain good sellers although not enjoy the zenith a vogue dictates.

The new queen of the feet for a short time anyway, was Mukluk boots. The Aboriginal North American Eskimo boots are made from sealskin with soft fur on the outside, and pom poms. There is no doubt the power of endorsement is influential in marketing and among many champions, fashion doyans Kate Moss, Cindy Crawford, Beyoncé, and WAG, Coleen Rooney (née McLoughlin). Coleen, is a new breed of celebrity a WAG (wives and girlfriends of sporting people). She is the spouse Wayne Rooney (Everton)

Before they settled down to married life the tabloid press latched on to their oft-troubled relationship. The intrusion of the paparazzi turned Coleen into a fashion icon. Fashion cynics were quick to described the young WAG as to style what a bicycle repair kit is to a Formula One car. She was portrayed as a shopaholic whose undiscerning accumulation of expensive clothes earned the term "looting chic". With typical random attire of a Dolce and Gabbana puffa jacket, tight Juicy Couture jeans and Mukluk boots, what was once perceived as a ghastly combination, was quickly copied on the street. The fashion industry followed closely behind her because the whole luxury market because the new IT was about accumulating possessions and putting them together without any subtlety. The younger Ms Coleen McLoughlin was a master of the art, and some might say the 'Mrs. Malaprop of fashion'. She caused a furore (maybe it should be fur-o-ray) with her comments regarding her Mukluk boots which are made from rabbit skins. The fashion doyen was quoted as saying "Why waste the (rabbit) skins after all they are killed for food," which caused a backlash from the animal rights lobby. It takes seven rabbits pelts to make the skins for a pair of faux Mukluks.

Most of the fashion boots are made in China, which is the biggest exporter of fur clothing and the largest fur trade production and processing base in the world. The absence of restrictive welfare regulations and abundance of cheap labour mean animal and human rights are not a priority in the pursuit of profit. Animal activists are convinced tens of thousands of animals are being held in conditions of terrible suffering and die in a horrendous way. According to figures from the British Fur Trade Association selling furs in the UK brings in more than A$230 billion and an increasing proportion of that is made up of rabbit. The fashion fad for Mukluk boots registered fur was back in fashion.

Sections of the UK Press are class ridden and the middle class press is keen to marginalise an underclass in their reporting style. They reintroduced the term ‘Chav’ to describe people (usually women) classified, as ignorant, mindless violent and with very bad dress sense. The term Chav is almost certainly from the Romany word for a child, chavi, recorded from the middle of the nineteenth century. Modern connotation has it as an acronym for "Council House and Violent" or "Chelsford Average". I am amazed how influenced newspapers still are in moulding the English lexicon.

The typical female chav has a love of flashy gold jewellery (hooped earrings, thick neck chains, sovereign rings and heavy bangles, which all may be lumped together under the term bling-bling); the wearing of white trainers (in what is called "prison white", so clean that they look new); clothes in fashionable brands with very prominent logos; and baseball caps, frequently in Burberry check, a favourite style. Hair also comes into the stereotype and a ‘council house facelift’ a euphemism for dyed hair tied back in an ultra-tight bun. The older Chev wears skirts too short for their mottled blue thighs, and exposes too much of their distressingly flabby midriffs".

Friday, April 20, 2018

And did those feet in ancient time: From Gauls to Galoshes.

The archaeological world was set on its feet after Iron Age shoes were unearthed in a hollowed tree trunk at Whiteball Quarry, near Wellington, Somerset. Archaeologists say the shoe measures approximately 30cm, equivalent to a modern size nine or 10, perhaps suggesting its owner was male. It is so well preserved that stitch and lace holes are still visible in the leather. The shoe is a rectangular bag of leather but has vertical stitching at the heel and six pairs of lace holes in the vamp make it definitely a shoe. Usually animal and vegetable materials perish in the ground but due to unusual conditions the artefact was preserved in pristine condition thanks to the clay which surrounded it. The shoe has been dated to between 700BC and 43AD (the first Roman Invasion of Britain was in 55 BC). Footwear from this period is extremely rare although a handful of relics have been found in other European countries. The shoe had no partner and experts believe it may have been left as a lucky charm.

Excavations of a Romano-Celtic temple complex at Tabard Square in Southwark, London recently unearthed a bronzed foot, which is by itself a rare find. However worse to come and the pedal extremity had the fashion audacity of wearing socks and sandals. Oh how uncouth. It has long been thought the humble sock was around 2000 years ago and no reason why it would not be worn but this is the first actual physical evidence to confirm it. The weather in Britain at that time was terrible (sic. What’s new?) and Tacitus recorded this at the time. Archaeologists are still undecided but believe the foot may have belonged to a statue of the god Mars Camulos who was worshipped in northern France and Britain. Inscriptions of the god's name have been found elsewhere on the temple site. Alternatively, the foot may be from a statue of an emperor. Since statues were never made of the plebs it may just have been an isolated case of bad taste.

Leg coverings (360 B.C.E. and A.D. 240) have been discovered in bog bodies and bodies trapped in glaciers, which predate the current find. So people in colder climates would most certainly cover their feet for protection. It would take until knitting was discovered before actual socks, as we would understand them to appear costume accessories.

There was an earlier find in York, England, which included a cache of Roman Sandals, many of which had been worn. Surprisingly from scientific analysis of the examples, which spanned children to adult sizes, they found the same wear marks as would be seen in modern shoes. In two millennium it appears the anatomy of the human foot has not changed despite the presence of footwear.

However, something we may all be grateful to the Roman’s was the reason they were able to conquer lands so far from the Mediterranean, certainly by land, was because they militarized the humble sandal. By using metal tacks to join the sole of the shoe to the upper they strengthened the footgear and were able to march further than any previous civilization. As the empire expanded into other climates the cleaver Romans incorporated the shoe making of the regions into their own. Supply lines became too convoluted to have supplies from the homeland and hence the Romans introduced sandal making to the Barbarians and in turn took waterproofed shoes from the French back to Rome.

Reviewed 20/04/2018

The Chemical Generation: From Docs to Kicks

When inner city youths rejected hippy music and heavy metal in the late 60s they created an alternative culture which was more utilitarian, unisex and affordable to out of work street kids. Bomber jackets, fitted shirts, Levis & braces with Doc Martens (DMs) boots were hip but dancing took second place to a good punch up. Skinheads (or suede heads) was a very machismo movement soon hijacked by racists and Neo-Nazis but initially they listened to Reggie music which was replaced later by racist, Oi music.

The once ultra-conservative Dr Martens shoes became the trademarks of urban youth excited by violence.

Dr Klause Martens of Munich invented his air trapped soles in 1945. The inspiration came had come from a personal injury he experienced when skiing and he wanted a more comfortable pair shoes. He started to produce the air sole in 1947 but it took until the mid to late 60s to peak. DMs became the essential accessory of youth harnessing the aggression of the storm trooper into the streets. European skinheads made it their own in the seventies and used their DMs (Bovver Boots) fierce weapons to shatter the complacency of the bourgeoisie. Skinheads were not the first to do this and in the seventeenth century young men called 'footpads' terrorised the highways and byways. DM's were readily adopted by all and became a youth phenomenon worn by women and gay men and not just as weapons of terror.

Into the 70s the generation of teenagers identified less with the sophisticated sounds of studio and disco but rediscovered simple rock music played live. All this took place at a time when the Western World was experiencing the beginning of economic hardship and aimless and unemployed street kids disinterested in finesse just wanted to be rocked.

Tapping into the movement came Malcolm McLaren and his girl friend Vivienne Westwood when in 1971, they took over the back part of the retail premises at 430 Kings Road in Chelsea, West London. Initially they sold rock n roll records, refurbished '50s radiograms and dead stock. Then they opened Let It Rock with Westwood repairing original clothing and making facsimiles. They designed clothing for theatrical and cinematic productions including as That'll Be The Day as well as catering for the brief fashion for all things Teddy Boy.

McLaren spent time in New York and was influenced by the New York Dolls what he saw at the notorious CBGB in New York City. He and Westwood opened SEX Boutique in the Kings Road and started to sell Westwood originals which appeared as simple clothing intended to shock. McLaren then decided to manage a makeshift band made up of SEX customers, John Lydon, John Ritchie, Paul Cook and Steve Jones with his shop assistant, Glen Matlock. The band were called The Sex Pistols and could scarcely play, no matter the Svengali, McLaren jumped at the opportunity to capitalize on their recording potential. The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle followed and the Sex Pistols became the front of a new teenage phenomenon called Punk Music.

Punk represented a return to more simplistic music and dancing to live music was back in small clubs and pubs. Crowed dance floors meant little room to do much more than pogo to the throbbing beat.

By the 80s, across Europe, groups of young men gathered on football terraces not to watch the games but to engage in fighting with rival fans.

Many were unemployed with no visible means of support yet wore extremely expensive designer clothes and shoes. Most were involved in crime and particular illicit drug trafficking.

Dubbed Soccer Casuals they joined the Chemical Generation who went clubbing) or frequented dance parties called Raves.

Acid house music parties started in Chicago but quickly spread and caught on in the UK within clubs, warehouses and free-parties. Activities were related to the party atmosphere of the hi-tech discos in Ibiza, a favorite holiday destination of British, Italian, Greek, Irish and German youth.

Looking good came with a new sartorial awareness. Shoes (kicks) needed to match the outfit and a hungry market was created.

To keep demand high, the giants like Adidas, Puma and Nike produced what were virtually fashion ranges of their popular sport shoes. Each season brought new design modifications, colour combinations (colourways) and logos, most of which were sales promotion ruses and had little to do with improving the efficiency of the shoe for exercise. The young enjoyed the exclusive designer element and cost was no barrier. A combination of clever marketing and the desire to rebel against conservatism assured the sneaker culture endured into the third millennium. Ravers danced ‘all-nighters’ and many took drugs like Ecstasy. This is a stimulant drug which contained methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Electronic music both recorded and live were favored in clubs like Manchester’s Hacienda

Reviewed 20/04/2018

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Introducing Nike Flyprint

Bunions and sex: Whatever next ?

Wendy Perriam is an English novelist, nothing unusual in that but her literary works, Tread Softly, won the author the dubious honour of the Literary Review's Bad Sex in Fiction award. This was the third time she had been put forward. Previous winners have been Alan Titchmarsh, Melvyn Bragg and Sebastian Faulks, so she is in good company. What clinched her the accolade was a scene in ‘Tread Softly’ where the intrepid heroine, a 30-something convalesce, recovering from a bunion operation, with complications, makes love to her husband whilst fantasizing about her foot surgeon. Convent-educated Perriam attributed her love of explicit scenes to her strict religious upbringing. Apparently the author did not receive sex education at home or school and has been fascinated with the subject ever since. But I ask myself does that excuse bringing bunions into the sex equation. Nothing more strange than folk.

Operations to the old bunions are very common and a patient satisfaction survey from the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons would support over 90% of patients experienced significant pain relief (96%), increased their physical activity (92%), and would recommend the procedure (89%). These findings reflect other findings from the UK and elsewhere. To the uninitiated, bunions describe a bursitis (inflamed fluid filled sac) which appears on the inside of the big toe joint. Swells up when agitated by friction usually from shoes which have less volume than the anatomy of the foot would require. The condition can become more pronounced if the metatarsal bone slips its ligament attachment causing the head of the bone to protrude. Then the condition is referred to as Hallux Abducto-Valgus, which is often mistakenly called ‘bunions’. The situation becomes more complex with osteoarthritis of the big toe joint and often suppuration (inflection) of the fluid filled sac is another compounding factor.

In any event bunions or HAV can be very painful, inhibit normal walking, and make it difficult to fit the feet into some shoes. Contrary to popular belief, bunions are aggravated, not caused, by tight shoes. Hallux Abducto Valgus is due to faulty rear foot mechanics which place intolerable stress on the main pivotal joint on the forefoot. Pain is the primary reason people seek medical attention with the majority of bunion surgeries historically performed on women. This is more to do with their skeletal make up than any demonization of fashion shoes, per se.

Despite reported post-surgical success conditions do apply and other studies have shown long term outcomes support a high return of HAV after surgical intervention. This is easily explained because the cause of the deformity relates to rearfoot patho-mechanics, which are often ignored at the expense of the orthopaedic procedure. The overall good news is patients seldom are troubled with the reoccurrence of their bunions and there are several theories as to why this is the case. By far my favourite is the condition is cured with the first operation and re-occurrence is not registered. Out of sight out of mind.

In truth, asymptomatic hallux abducto valgus is probably more natural to the functioning foot than we give it credit and out idealized straight toe joint is as unnatural as Lara Croft is to the perfect figure.

Reviewed 19/04/2018

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Carbon Footprint: A brief history of litter

Recently a colleague commented on a couple of pictures I posted of city landscapes from the early 20th century. 'No litter' he said, and that got me thinking. Litter became a national problem in the mid-1950's as the Western World recovered from the Second World War and the domestic manufacturing industries began to prosper. Improved mass production of disposable goods produced a growing mountain of waste as mass consumerism was encouraged .

The first great UK clean-up took place in 1951 for The Festival of Britain, and again in 1953 for The Queen's Coronation. ‘Keep Britain Tidy’ was originally set up by a conference of 26 organisations in 1955. The conference was initiated by the British Women's Institute after a resolution was passed at its 1954 AGM to start a national anti-litter campaign.

Keep America Beautiful was formed in 1953 when a group of corporate and civic leaders met in New York City to bring the public and private sectors together to develop and promote a national cleanliness ethic. In 1956, the first Public Service Announcement (PSA) on Littering appeared in the US. The first Litter Act in the UK came in 1958 after a public outcry.

Throughout the Sixties, societal attitude toward litter underwent a huge change and public service anti-litering campaigns like Keep America Beautiful and new state laws about littering were evidenced. These were mirrored throughout the Western World yet by the 70s, 'littering' had become a widely accepted universal social norm. The average person holds a piece of litter for 12 steps before dropping it. So if they don't find a litter bin within about thirty feet, chances are it lands on the street. Large areas of plastic waste collected in the ocean despite a ban on dumping by the International Maritime Organization. The packaging industry is the single biggest market for new plastic and over the past decade demand for plastic has grown by over 30% to 300 million tonnes per year. Plastic waste remains the 21st century's biggest environmental pollutant.

As part of the Queen's 90th birthday celebrations, the Keep Britain Tidy Group organised ‘Clean for the Queen,’ a great national litter pick. Despite a mixed reaction, over quarter of a million people collected 300,000 bags of rubbish, enough litter to stretch from Land's End to John O'Groats.

On average in England, 30 million tonnes of rubbish are swept up annually at a cost of nearly £850 million. This would be enough rubbish to fill Wembley Stadium four times over. The UK’s top litter items in 2016 were all products designed to be single use and disposable: cigarette stubs, sweet wrappers, drinks bottles, food packaging, paper tissues and plastic bags.

Carbon Footnote
Plastic takes around approximately 400 years to decay into fine plastic dust which will eventually drift around our planet. There is now estimated to be five trillion pieces of plastic floating in the oceans.

Who invented damp proof socks? Only John Logie Baird

As every school child knows, Scotsman, John Logie Baird, invented the first working television. Logie Baird was the youngest of four children of a clergyman and was born on August 13th, 1888, in Helensburgh, Dumbarton, Scotland. Right from the beginning Logie Baird was a compulsive innovator. As a laddie he set up an electrical supply system and telephone exchange in his father's manse. As a young man he trained as an electrical engineer and was fascinated with talking pictures. He funded his obsession for inventing with the profit made from a most unlikely source, he invented damp proof socks.

John kept ill health and found the harsh Scottish climate challenging; now at least he could keep his feet warm, if not on the ground. Driven by his obsessions he continued to invent but not all of his inventions worked out, as his unsuccessful cure for haemorrhoids was to show. When he tried it on himself, he was unable to sit down for a week; his rust less razor left him scarred for life; and his pneumatic shoes just burst. When he was dismissed from his job for creating a blackout in Glasgow, whilst experimenting with making diamonds from coal dust, the inventor took heed of a friend’s advice and moved to Trinidad.

The warmer climate suited the frail Scotsman and he decided to make living purveying cotton and safety pins. Sadly, nobody wanted his wares, but by this time he saw the potential to develop a preserves industry using the islands’ natural and abundant fruit. By day the mad Scotsman studied cookbooks, hired helpers, and set to work in his remote wooden bungalow. A giant copper cauldron, formerly a washtub, could hold 112 pounds of fruit, and he suspended it over a brick fireplace, stirring frantically in the heat. The boiling fruit attracted wasps, bees and hornets by the score. Most of which ended up entombed in the bottles of preserve. Needless to say the jam making business was doomed.

By night he continued his life’s work to produce television, driven by the progress he had made before he left Glasgow. The nocturnal flashing lights and weird noises coming from Chateau Logie Baird soon attracted the attention of his superstitious neighbours. In fear the stranger was a dealer in supernatural forces they called him Obeah man. Obeah is a form of witchcraft practiced in the Caribbean.

The Obeah man can summons up Duppies (malevolent spirits) and plant them in the home to curse the occupants. So not that far removed from television when you think of it. In any event one night an angry crowd gathered outside his house to protest. Keen to rid themselves of the Obeah man they threw stones at his bungalow the hot tempered Scot, annoyed at their ignorance, stood his ground, and through the missiles back. Eventually things settled down Logie Baird perfected the rudiments of television and returned to England to promote his latest invention.

He created the first televised pictures of objects in motion (1924), the first televised human face (1925) and a year later he televised the first moving object image at the Royal Institution in London. He then pioneered colour television (1928) and developed something we have not yet seen commercialized, three-dimensional television.

Publically Logie Baird was lampooned and dismissed as another crank by the public. The significance of television was not missed by the British Secret Service and Nazi Germany. The German post office gave Logie Baird facilities to develop a television service in 1929. His system was originally adopted by the BBC in 1936 but in the same year Crystal Palace was mysteriously destroyed by fire.

Many conspiracy theorists believe this was the work of Third Columnists, intent on destroying Baird's work. In any event by February 1937, the BBC had adopted the Marconi EMI system. As a broadcaster he developed the basic television techniques for outside broadcasting, used today. The right clever clogs even saw the potential for video recording and his first working radar developed the technology we now know as fibre optics. High-speed facsimile transmission via television played a vital role in the Second World War. Not bad for an Obeah Man who invented damp proof socks.

The Secret Life of John Logie Baird (Hutchinson, London, 1986), journalist Tom McArthur and mechanical engineer Peter Waddell

Reviewed 18/04/2018

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Power of prayer: ..and the mountain moved

In 1225 the Caliph of Baghdad and Mosul hated Christians so much he spent his waking moments thinking of ways to make them converts. Those who refused were killed. His advisers hatched a plan, which related to the Old Testament belief if a Christian had as much faith as a grain of mustard; he could, by praying to his God, move mountains. He summoned together the Christian leaders and offered the following proposal. The Christians had to use divine power to move a mountain that neighboured the city. Failure to achieve this objective in ten days would require conversion to the religion of Mohammed, or death. This caused great concern to the Christian community and for eight days and nights they prayed. On the eighth night, an angel appeared to a particularly saintly bishop and said.’ Go to the cross-eyed shoe maker and tell him to pray for the mountain to be moved.’

The shoemaker was an honest man who lived a chaste life, was a good Christian and shared his food with the poor. He was well known because as a young man he was not always so. A young woman came to his shop to buy a pair of shoes. She was beautiful and the shoemaker asked to see her uncovered legs and feet. Temptation and lechery overcame him and he misbehaved. In the Old Testament when the eye offended, it had to be plucked out and that was what the shoemaker did. He deliberately blinded his eye with a shoemaker’s awl and became a virtuous and devout man thereafter. The Christians begged him to pray for them and eventually he agreed and the mountain moved.

Reviewed 17/04/2018